Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Definition
Intellectual Property Rights can be defined as a legal protection granted by the State to a person and/or a group of persons or entities whose ideas have been realized into the form of a work of creation. The copyrighted creation constitutes an individual and / or group right that needs to be protected legally, if an invention (innovation) is registered in accordance with the existing requirements. that creation in the scope of intellectual property that may be registered for legal protection such as literary, artistic, scientific, performing, cassette, audio-visual broadcasting, scientific discoveries, industrial designs, trademarks, business names, etc. IPR is also a property right that is within the scope of technology, science, and art and literature. Its ownership is not to the goods but to the results of human intellectual capabilities. So, IPR protect the use of ideas, ideas and information that have commercial value or economic value.
History of Intellectual Property Right (IPR)
Briefly, the development of Intellectual Property Law can be seen in the chart below, starting from 1470 until April 15th 1994.
1470 | Venice, Italia
The act on the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) was first established in Venice, Italy concerning patents in 1470. Caxton, Galileo and Guttenberg were listed as inventors who emerged during that period and had a monopoly on their invention.
1500-1923 | Statute of Monopolies
then, The act on patents established in Venice at 1470, adopted by the British Empire in the Tudor era of the 1500s. Later, the act of the first patent in the United Kingdom was enacted namely the Statute of Monopolies (1623).
1883-1886 | Paris Convention & Berne Convention
The harmonization effort for IPR Field, first occurred in 1883 with the establishment of the Paris Convention for patents, trademarks, industrial designs, utility models, service marks, trade names, geographical indications and the repression of unfair competition. Then Berne Convention 1886 for copyright.
The objectives of the conventions are standardization, discussion of new issues, information exchange, minimum protection and right acquisition procedures. The two conventions then formed an administrative bureau called the United International Bureau for the Protection of Intellectual Property which became known as the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). WIPO became a special administrative body under the United nations(UN) that handles the issue of the UN member’s intellectual property rights.
In addition, in 2001 the WIPO has enacted at April 26th as International Intellectual Rights Day. Every year, WIPO member countries organize various activities in order to as International Intellectual Rights Day.
1994 | Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIP’s)
The attachment related to intellectual property rights (IPR) is the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIP’s) which is a guarantee for the successful of trading relations between countries in a fair manner, because:
- TRIP’s focuses on norms and standards;
- The nature of approval in TRIP’s is Full Complience;
- TRIP’s contains very strict enforcement provisions with a dispute resolution mechanism followed by retributive sanctions.
the impact of TRIPS Agreement is to require the participating countries to protect the IPR which is basically the same as that set out in the Berne Convention, The Paris Convention, The Rome Convention, and The Washington IPIC Treaty (Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits). The result is (or will be) an international protection system based on the principle of non-discrimination and supported by a minimum protection base in 117 signatory countries.